In periodontal laser therapy, the dentist or hygienist first uses a dental laser to reduce the bacterial count in the infected gum pocket around the root of the tooth. Next, the practitioner will scale and root plane the root surface with an ultrasonic instrument. This involves scraping off the calculus and plaque built up below the gumline and around the root. They then smooth the root with instruments to remove any rough spots that might attract bacteria and cause future infections. Finally, the practioner will remove the inflamed gum tissue from around the root. Irrigation of the gum pocket with an antimicrobial solution may also be performed. The area between the gum and the root can then regenerate during the healing process.